About Me


I am a nineteen year old student living in the Bay Area along with my sisters (ages 24&17) and my dog, a stud of a boxer (age 8). I am originally from Nevada City, CA but after spending some time at 4 year in Seattle and not liking it, I didn't want to head back to school in good ol' Nevada County, so I moved to the Silicon Valley, where there is much more going on. I do however miss aspects of Nevada City, including being surrounded by pine trees a good 95% of the time, the historic downtown, and of course, the beautiful Yuba river. I love the outdoors, eating lots of good, healthy foods, and crafting whatever I can get my hands on. At Seattle, I was studying civil engineering, but I am changing my course and thinking about following in my dad's footsteps as a lawyer. But, who knows, I'll most likely change my mind 6 times before I graduate. That's me in a nutshell: I like the sun, eating, math, and crafts. What a combo!

Wednesday, June 26, 2013

Letter to Self


Writing has never been my strong suit. I have always known that and accepted it. When it came time to write I would get clammy and anxious and my thoughts would be scattered all over the place. Really, I just thought writing was boring and plain difficult. Yet, over the course of this quarter, as much as I am resisting to say it, I have come to appreciate writing and actually like it. Yes, I still get nervous and a sweat breaks out, but I can now control my thoughts and overall flow of the essay much better. This course has taught me how to control my thoughts, how to organize my thoughts into an essay and to take a breather before I write, because it seems to turn out okay. In addition, I have learned a ton on topics of American culture and I can now see where my actions put me in the spectrum of our culture.

I would call myself a “math person”. I like straightforward answers that are derived based off of logic and formulas. Clearly, writing is not like math. There is much more to writing than simply structure, words, and paragraphs. Thoughts, interpretations, opinions and style were the parts of writing I struggled with because I thought in a black and white world. I think this course allowed me to be confident in my thoughts of others’ opinions, with that came the interpretations, opinions, and style. Writing essays was dooming because I just couldn’t get my words out. I wasn’t appealing to the reader or even to myself. My essays were more like lab reports and lacked deep interpretation and creativity. I think what changed my rigid ways of writing came from the fact that my essays were no longer visible to one reader, a professor, but to many, peers and online readers. This pushed me to take more ownership in my work and to make more of an effort to interpret my thoughts, even though it was difficult. Sentence modification was also super helpful in serving me to generate more thoughtful explanations in my essays. The structure kept my thoughts in order and then allowed me to use the previous thought to continue my analysis.

Not only did I learn a lot about myself as a thinker, I learned a lot about how to organize about many different aspects of American culture. For the first in-class-essay, The Effect of the iPhone on American Culture, I learned about how our culture can be described through items. The iPhone was a great example of this because it demonstrates how connected to technology we are as a culture. The next essay, The Nonconformity Essence of the Hipster Subculture, taught me about how each and every popular subculture has some distinct essence or attitude that ties the group together. And how members of this group act a certain way to maintain this essence. Next, The Transformation of Technology on Human Interaction and Communication, taught me about the positive and negative aspects of technology. But overall, technology has allowed us to live more public lives in the comforts of home. Chrome Cologne by Azzaro: Be a Better Man, taught me how advertisements appeal to our subconscious and how we are drawn to certain elements. This course allowed me to research American culture and see what things have changed and how we are affected.

This class and the steps I took for each assignment changed my way of thinking when it comes to writing and to American culture as a whole. I am happy to say that with a little organization, I can portray my thoughts more clearly and effectively while incorporating style to my essays. As for our culture, I have learned that we all have a choice when it comes to culture and we can take or leave whatever aspects of it as we choose. Both my new thoughts and writing and American culture will help me in the future to write more clearly and be more aware of my thoughts and actions.

Responding to Culture Jam: Living in a World of Constant Consumption


We all know it’s true: the United States is floundering in a debt unimaginably enormous. The deficits grow larger with each coming year and our economy further plummets into a land of no return. What is the answer to eliminating this gigantic debt? Economists say: consume more, add to GDP and this will lead to the righteous saving of America. But, what if this is completely wrong? Maybe, in actuality, the problem is we consume too much. Maybe, American popular culture has morphed to the point where decisions are made by corporations, rather than decisions based off of our own intuition. Author Kalle Lasn, founder of Adbusters magazine and a founder of the “Occupy Wall Street” movement, shares similar views in Culture Jam, his book on the problems and solutions of over consumption in America. The book opens with assessing the current issues in the United States, which Lasn sums up as being that Americans are living artificial lives derived by corporations and advertisers. The following section, Winter, the problem of the media-consumer trance is roughed out. Lasn expresses that large advertising companies and corporations have trained our thoughts on what is considered “cool”, where “coolness” means wearing and using the latest brands and technologies.  Spring is about how to take steps toward the renewal of an America independent of corporate thoughts. This includes stopping consumption (comprising of the consumption of actual goods to the consumption of hours of television) and spreading the word to all of American culture of the devastating path the US is facing. Lastly, Summer gives us a glimpse into the future if Americans were to revolt against the current system. Lasn believes that by reversing and ceasing consumption directed by corporations that Americans could live more “authentic” and fulfilling lives. Culture Jam, along with other popular culture critics’ opinions, in my eyes, has made it very apparent that American popular culture is not so much a culture but a large mass of people who eagerly wait on advertisers and establishments to make decisions on how to live, how to act, and how to be happy; in order to do so, we are told to consume rapidly.

In macroeconomics, our class recently learned about the immense American debt. My professor went around the room and asked each of us how we should stop and reverse this ever-growing monetary obligation. When she came to me, I answered, “ We need to spend less. We consume too much and are too comfortable with debt”. The class laughed at this, probably as a majority of Americans would because spending less, having less is not favorable. Lasn believes we are brainwashed, and while “brainwashed” seems like a rather harsh word, in some aspects he is right. The advertising world surrounding us has made it obvious we all need more to believe we will be happier and fit in. Why would anyone want to consume less if it meant they are looked do

wn upon or are less “cool”? This is the most prominent problem in American culture, we are all so fond of buying and using more products that we are unaware of the effect it is having on our lives. Lasn believes we serve some kind of “implicit contract” with corporations and with these unspoken agreements we become dependent on products. He writes in the voice of a corporation: “You work for me (i.e., you wear my clothes and makeup) and I will guard your place in the social hierarchy. I will protect your turf” (78). For most, this is a reality; we feel protected for an instant after buying the newest product because we are told we will. American popular culture revolves around the idea of furthering growth and wealth because we simply tend to believe more is good and less is bad.

Roy Fox, a professor at the University of Missouri at Columbia, in his piece, Salespeak, places us in the future at a school, where the primary focus is to teach children how to be successful consumers (Common Culture, 54). At this school, marketing pitches, advertisements and corporate how-to manuals are in constant circulation. Interestingly enough, Fox believes this picture is closer than we think. Furthermore, he is primarily interested in the ways that advertising and merchandising have found their way into classrooms, ultimately altering the content and purpose of education. Fox concludes that advertisements and corporate influences have dominant voices in the education system and have found their way into schools’ curriculum. Therefore, children are receiving “educational” messages from corporations. American culture has deemed it acceptable that constant advertising is placed virtually everywhere, including schools and this has directly negatively affected us as a whole. This is because we are furthered pushed to consume and lead lives devoted to spending.  According to Fox, children’s thoughts are infiltrated by corporate messages and the urges to consume the promoted products are prevalent. This type of constant exposure, as Lasn explains, has made us “ripe for manipulation” (38). Meaning that we are so disposed to advertisements that we are “buzzed” by certain logos, yet, we hardly notice them.
           
In the section, “Ecology of Mind”, Lasn dissects our means of relaxing—TV, and how it has causes us to adversely affect interactions with others. The TV has allowed us to, “…receive but we do not transmit. Identical images flow into our brains, homogenizing our perspectives, knowledge, tastes, desires” (Lasn 12). Relatively speaking, the TV has become are primary means of entertainment, form of relaxing, and often information. Lasn, along with other critics, believe this constant exposure to TV has negative effects on humans. While watching TV from time to time has never been proven to cause adverse results, continuous viewing has and these outcomes have altered the way interaction occurs in American popular culture. In the piece, Television Addiction is No Mere Metaphor, by Robert Kubey and Mihaly Csikszenthihalyi, they address the effects and consequences of TV addiction. They deem that TV addiction harms social interactions and productiveness. In the article, they use study results from Gary A. Steiner of the University of Chicago who collected personal accounts from individuals who’s TV sets had broken. “’The family walked around like a chicken without a head.’ ‘It was terrible. We did nothing—my husband and I talked.’ ‘Screamed constantly. Children bothered me, and my nerves were on edge. Tried to interest them in games, but impossible. TV is part of them’” (Common Culture, 152). Prolonged exposure to TV, which is common in the United States, has radically reduced human interaction to brief, and unfocused tidbits of conversation. American popular culture does not revolve around deep conversation and storytelling as it once did, but rather can be seen as having evolved to fragmented communicating.
           
American popular culture can be viewed as a group of individuals that consume ever more. Likewise, we tend to expend technology habitually. Every six months or so, a new iPhone or game console is created; we rush to Best Buy and clear the shelves or spend hours upon hours using social networking sites and apps. In American culture today, it is standard for individuals to pull away from the world around them and plug in to the virtual world that lives within phones and gaming consoles. We have created a culture where we can all be together in a room and not exchange a single spoken word; yet, hundreds of words are sent through text, multiple songs are played through headphones, and several levels are completed in the newest game used on a hand-held gaming device. Robert Samuels, a lecturer in the Writing Programs at UCLA, writes in Breaking Down Borders: How Technology Transforms the Private and Public Realms that, “there are new rules for how to act in public places and for how to socialize with and around one another. It’s clear, as well, that none of these changes would have occurred without new technologies helping to break down borders” (Common Culture, 360). With such hasty consumption of technology, social culture has reformed. Evading the present world is easy when there a cybernetic escape just a few clicks away. And, while within this world, we tend to act differently because our minds are someplace else. Socializing in American culture has come to be influenced by consumption—consumption of technology because it is always in our hand’s reach and hours a day are spent on using technology.

Another interesting point Lasn makes in Culture Jam is the idea that the American Dream has ended in place of consumption. He concludes that the American Dream has transformed in to more than having the house with the white picket fence, a home cooked meal, a running car, and a steady, rewarding job. Rather it has turned in to a game of being told happiness comes with purchasing more and more. Yet, as Lasn describes, the game does not have a winner. Rather, it is a never-ending cycle where there just simply is not enough, so further consumption continues. As Lasn explains it, “ We yearn to realize the dream more fully. We work and strive for the promised payoff. We try to catch the river in a bucket. But we never will” (62). These words draw shape to the new American culture where intake rules everything. In American culture today, once a taste of the American Dream is savored, it is impossible to resist the urge to keep nibbling: “We have learned what it means to live full-on, to fly and fornicate like an American, and now we refuse to let that lifestyle go. So we keep consuming. Our bodies, minds, families, communities, the environment—all are consumed” (63). The American has gone a wholly new direction; now, we only want more and simply have the necessities is not enough.

How will the United States overcome the colossal debt? Will the solution be what many economists suggest, to spend and consume more? Or, is the United States economy too stimulated? It’s possible, as Americans, we consume too much. We have let this consumption take over our lives and transform our culture into one infatuated with obtaining to a greater extent.  Kalle Lasn strongly suggests that by continuing in this direction the United States will collapse and in terms of economics, the debt will grow exponentially. Yet, Lasn believes there is a possible solution: consume less, live simpler, more “authentic” lives and reverse the American course out of debt. And while Lasn believes this should not happen because of the forces opposing this transition, it will because as a group we can undermine advertisers. And as Lasn puts it, “ American cool is now every bit as vulnerable as the Soviet Union was ten years ago. A revolution couldn’t happen there, but it did. It can’t happen here, but it will. This is a momentous occasion and we shouldn’t doubt or fear, but celebrate. In the dawn of this new millennium, one dream is ending and another being born. And I can’t think of anything cooler than that”(215). 





Tuesday, June 25, 2013

Advertisement Analysis: Be a Better Man



“Human beings, it is presumed, walk around with a variety of unfulfilled urges and motives swirling in the bottom half of their minds. Lusts, ambitions, tenderness, vulnerabilities—they are constantly bubbling up, seeking resolution…. Advertisers want to circumvent this shell of consciousness, if they can, and latch on to one of the lurching, subconscious drives” (Fowles 73). Author Jib Fowles believes the way in which advertisers grab the attention of their target markets is by pulling at the most intimate of emotions—emotions so personal, they are withheld from the judgments of others. When advertisers appeal to these emotions through the use of media, humans react, usually subconsciously, and are attracted to not only the product, but also to the images and lifestyle the advertisement sells. Fowles believes that these emotional appeals are found in fifteen different categories. Each category has one objective: to appeal to human emotions, needs, and wants. After browsing through a plethora of magazines, ranging from People to Better Homes and Gardens, to O, the Oprah Magazine to GQ, I found that many ads did exactly as Fowles described—they appealed to many basic needs, including but not limited to: the need to nurture, the need for prominence, and the need for aesthetic sensations. These common appeals are prominently found in a cologne advertisement by Azzaro. This cologne ad does not just sell the product but also successfully attracts needs, as listed above, by using certain models, colors, and props. Azzaro has followed Fowles’ prediction; they effectively “appeal[ed] to deep-running drives in the minds of consumers” (73) by incorporating elements that penetrate the subconscious and deliver meta-messages to effectively sell the product.

When you first look at the Chrome cologne ad by Azzaro you see two good-looking models, a young boy and man, possibly in his early thirties or late twenties, holding one another. The man is on his knees with one armed wrapped around the boy, presumably his son, and the other resting on a small airplane. Intertwined, is the boy; he stands nestled against his dad, and carelessly leans on him for support. One hand slightly in his pocket, the other wrapped securely around his dad’s shoulders. Although the man has a serious, yet casual expression on his face, the son is smiling and exposing his white, straight teeth. Together they wear only grey and white; the son wears a casual white long sleeved shirt and white pants with a grey muffler wrapped around his neck. This light grey color of the muffler is the same color as the dad’s casual V-neck sweater. He too wears white pants.  Placed on the man’s finger is a wedding ring in the same grey color as the muffler and sweater. When you take a closer look at the model’s faces, you see they both have the same light blue eyes, coral lip color, light skin and pinkish cheeks, and even the same care-free, wind blown hair style. It appears as though the two are spending the day together by taking their airplane out for a fly and have just taken a moment to have their picture taken. The plane is also white, like the models’ clothes, but it has a few hints of a darker blue and grey. The image is cropped so that the plane is difficult to make out at first, ensuring it is not the main subject or focus of the ad. Behind the models is a light aqua colored sky without a cloud in sight. The cologne name, Chrome, and the brand, Azzaro, are placed directly above the models’ heads. Underneath these two lines reads the words, “Live to inspire”. As the sky and models’ figures meet, it becomes less aqua but more light, nearly to a white color. This transition from aqua to white is the exact color of the contents in the cologne bottle, which is placed floating in front of the models and scaled disproportionately to them. As you turn the page, going on to the next ad or article, the bottle of cologne is the last thing you see, as it is in the lower right corner of the page.

Azzaro’s ad and its layout, models, and colors were not chosen for any reason. Each element was thoughtfully picked to make an inference. For example, Azzaro chose the aqua color featured in the ad not because they like it but because of what it implies. If you look through cologne ads, you will see that a majority of them are dark and use colors like black and charcoal, but Azzaro went a wholly new direction. By choosing the light blue hue, they appeal to a different market; Chrome appeals not to the man who wishes to be deemed sexy and masculine by women, but to the man who desires to be seen as a loyal husband and caring father. The aqua used is very similar to the blue color featured in Tiffany ads. As Tiffany is a high-end jewelry line, it can be determined that Azzaro was too trying to appeal to an upper-class market. They are not interested in targeting single men, but men who are in a stable relationship and who can afford a higher-end lifestyle. This leisurely, well-off lifestyle is produced in the ad by the use of the airplane. It is the middle of the day, most men are working, but the model, father, has the day off to be with his son. It suggests that he has enough income to take work off, or not work at all, and is also able to afford an expensive hobby. Not only does the man have the resources to own and operate a plane, he is a loving father, as seen by the models’ postures; the man securely holds his son, giving the impression that he is both protective and affectionate towards him. The young boy reciprocates this loving feeling by the way his arms are too wrapped around his dad. As the dad kneels, son stands smiling, giving off the appearance that he looks up to his father and is happy in his presence; his pearly whites are the dead giveaway. The son’s admiring posture against his father emphasizes the cologne’s catchy slogan, “Live to inspire”. The wording, juxtaposed to the dreamy blue skies, gives a feeling of carefree success.

Behind the aqua sky, sunny and untroubled setting, and affectionate models, Azzaro’s meta-messages are revealed. It gives the target market a sense of the need to nurture, the need for prominence, and the need for aesthetic sensations. By purchasing this cologne, men believe they are good nurturers, supporters, and helpers. They are capable and skillful at protecting their children. And as they nurture and care for their children, they are worshipped for their protection and looked up to by their children and in turn, are adored by their wives for being exceptional fathers. As a result of being a successful nurturer, they deserve admiration, respect, and prominence. This is exactly what Azzaro is advertising they will receive and what these men deserve. But, not only will they receive praise from their children and wives, they will receive acclamation in their workplaces as they become better at their jobs and their incomes rise. With a higher salary and more time off, they have even more occasions to be with
their children. It is a cycle that grows and grows; Azzaro sells the idea that Chrome can improve life by increasing income, based off of the confidence gained from being a fostering parent and husband. Furthermore, the perfect layout, color combinations, and models’ expressions and poses suggest men too can become closer to perfection. They can be flawless in every aspect, ranging from parenting to clothing, to hobbies to hairstyles. Chrome sells the lifestyle of a financially stable, successful, carefree, devoted father and husband with immaculate looks and style. 

Advertisements are everywhere: billboards, on the TV and radio, on the webpages we browse, in the literature we read, on tray tables, in bathroom stalls, and even in space. With ads in sight nearly every minute, how do advertisers make appeals to consumers? Jib Fowles examines advertisements and why we are only attracted to a few in his essay Advertising’s Fifteen Basic Appeals by drawing on the research of Henry A. Murray. Although we are exposed to a number of ads each day, few have the ability to make their way into our subconscious and attract us to more than just the product, but to the lifestyle affiliated with the product. In an ad for cologne, Azzaro uses some of the appeals described by Fowles to create an underlying message while promoting the product. This message being that men who buy their cologne will be additionally nurturing, successful, and maintain a laid back demeanor. As ads become more prevalent, advertisers will be forced to use innovative techniques to draw the attention of consumers. For now, they are able to attract us by appealing to personal, sometimes subconscious, emotions but as we become more immune to ads of this nature, a revolution of advertising will be necessary. 

Advertisement Analysis: Reflection

What I found most thought-provoking about researching the topic of this essay was the level of descriptiveness that could be interpreted from the advertisement based off of Fowles' ideas. Before exploring this topic, I really only noticed two human desires. These being the desire for sex and desire for attention. Really, ads appeal to much deeper and hidden emotions and desires, such as the desire to nurture and the need to aggress. Furthering examining the Azzaro ad and reading more on advertisement strategies, I learned that nearly every tiny aspect of the advertisement fulfilled some purpose. From props, to color scheme, to the models' body language, gestures and clothing, and to the direct placement of the product in the ad itself. Overall, I learned that effective ads work with every bit of the frame to appeal to human wants (sometimes subconscious wants).

On the writing aspect of the essay, I felt that this essay challenged me to obtain a lot of interesting, descriptive information from a single image. Yet, it taught me how to think more profoundly on a particular subject and organize my thoughts as they become more detailed and specific. I also feel like I learned how to make my own interpretations more fluid throughout the essay. Furthermore, I expanded my thoughts and opinions while incorporating the sources.

Monday, June 24, 2013

Technology and Culture: The Transformation of Technology on Human Interaction and Communication





A portion of my day is spent online, browsing blogs and social networking sites, and using my iPhone and applications. Yet, I have never taken the time to think about the effects of constant technology use. What is this overload of technology doing to my social life and how is it affecting the way I interact with others? After reading articles, textbooks, and watching documentaries I began to see the changes occurring around me, but it was not until after I took a deeper look at my own patterns that I understood the transformations in my own life. I first noticed how I have changed socially. It became clear to me that technology has influenced human interaction and communication to become more virtual and depends less on human emotions.

It is completely acceptable for me to pull out my phone while I am at dinner, hanging out with a friend, or participating in any other social event. This did not used to be the case, as it was considered rude to pull out one’s phone while interacting with individuals.  However, the constant buzz of technology surrounding our lives has made this once socially wrong activity, completely acceptable. In Frontline’s documentary, Digital Nation, MIT students are interviewed on the topic of technology and how they use it. One student said, “ You’re talking to your friend at the same time you’re talking to your other friend. You’re emailing another friend about what you’re gonna do tomorrow night… We are all so busy, that it’s okay if I am talking to Murph right now and his blackberry goes off and he has to start going on it. It’s like, well that’s okay because I’m gonna do that to him anyways. So, it’s a mutual understanding” (Digital Nation). This idea of using one’s phone while surrounded by others is normal. Technology has allowed many people to pull themselves from the real life and plug into the virtual realm. It has changed to where interaction becomes disrupted by a phone vibration or Facebook alert. Thoughts seem to be shorter and sporadic because they are constantly disrupted by the use of technology. Furthermore, I see the effects of technology in my own life. When my phone goes off I experience an instant rush of adrenaline; I will always check it and disconnect myself form the conversations around me. Occurrences like this in my life have multiplied as technology has grown; before the iPhone, I had a basic cell phone, so I could not spend a lot of time using it. Now that I have an advanced smartphone, I have access to the internet, social networking sites, and a plethora of applications. How will social gatherings further change when phones are more advanced and have additional uses?


While technology has the ability to pull our attention from the present world to the virtual world, it also has the aptitude to blur the lines between private and public realms. When this line is distorted, interactions with one another are also altered.  Author Robert Samuels writes on this fuzziness between the two worlds and how the constant shift between the realms results in an “attention deficit disorder”. “’ …People not only become more superficial, but the constant switching between work and leisure activities creates a fragmented sense of self and gives everyone a bad case of attention deficit’” (Common Culture: Breaking Down Borders, pg. 361).  From this quote, one can infer technology has changed public spaces entirely. It is likely one will hear a personal argument between a husband and wife, or a conversation between a woman and friend about her son’s parent-teacher conference, all the while simply sitting in a park or at a cafe. This information overload is continued even as one arrives home through the use of Facebook and Twitter. Constant use of mobile technology has made private information much more public. This affects how one interacts with other beings; so much information is known through the use of a cell phone or social media sites, it becomes difficult to communicate in person. This is because one simply already knows about the day of his/her friend and there is less to converse about.

Technology has allowed individuals to interact without face-to-face communication but still feel connected.  This is most easily seen in online gaming through electronic games such as World of Warcraft where users can “meet up” online and play together to progress in the game. In Digital Nation, online gamers are interviewed at a convention. Gamer, Janice Gosnel, talks about bond she has with fellow gamers: “ People that don’t game don’t understand the relationships, connections, and how close you can get to someone that you’ve never seen” (Digital Nation). Janice is describing the feeling many of her peers share: gaming allows companionships to form even without direct oral communication. The advancement of online gaming lets players communicate through headpieces and chatting groups. Online gaming opens up a virtual world of communication and teamwork where gamers form groups or “guilds” to advance in the level, and in turn initiate a bond. Despite negative effects of technology on human interaction, technology also allows individuals to form serious bonds without direct contact.

Lastly, technology has altered the way in which one experiences other beings to where it is easier to communicate through the use of technology. In the informative book Culture Jam, author, Kalle Lasn, writes on how technology has emotionally dumbed down the human race and affected the brain in an ill way. In the chapter “Posthuman”, Lasn talks about how technology has the ability to pull one from the present and into a virtual world and how this occurrence negatively affects human interaction. He uses an example from Edmund Carpenter’s book, Oh, What a Blow that Phantom Gave Me!, to express this idea. He quotes Carpenter, “’ I knew a Californian who read his poetry aloud at parties until his friends learned to silence him… But when he played his recordings of these same poems, everybody listened.’ The Situationalist might say such tales, as they accumulate, mark the end of the authentic experience, and therefore the end of authentic self” (Lasn 45).  It is apparent that Lasn is openly saying that technology draws in individual’s attention easier than face-to-face communication.  I know aspects of this are true in my own life. I mostly communicate with friends through texting, yet before the iPhone, it could be difficult to write out what I was truly feeling. But, emojis somehow make the gap easier to overcome. By simply inserting “J”, my friend has a better idea of the tone I am using and the feeling I am trying to express. There are hundreds of emojis and I can clearly get my idea across. It is hard to imagine that a computer can successfully express one’s thought, but at this rate, that conclusion is not far away.

Technology is everywhere and is constantly evolving, becoming more and more advanced. While technology surrounds life, the effects on culture are not often explored. It is true that technology has many positive aspects, but what is it doing to the human way of life? Human interaction and communication is one of the first pieces of culture to change by the use of technology.  With technology, face-to-face communication diminishes as virtual bonds grow, and personal information is shared in public while frontal communication becomes more difficult. In the chapter, “Posthuman” Lasn explores the idea that technology will break down all social order as humans hide away at home, glued to cyberspace. In years to come, it will become apparent if this transition is actually occurring, yet the changes in social interaction can be seen as giving the first glimpse into this new cyber world.